The following materials are from the Ocean Carbon and Biogeochemistry (OCB) Program (

OA e-Lecture series in Limnology and Oceanography:

SCOR Working Group 145. Modelling Chemical Speciation in Seawater to Meet 21st Century Needs (MARCHEMSPEC)

There is at present no universally accepted model for calculating speciation, particularly of key trace metals, the carbonate system, and including the various definitions of pH in oceanic and estuarine environments. Consequently, chemical speciation calculations are often of uncertain accuracy, and are neither traceable nor repeatable by others. SCOR Working Group 145 aims to (i) develop an universally accepted speciation model based on the Pitzer equations to address these problems, and (ii) make this model available through a user-friendly web tool. For more information, please visit